Stroke Risk with Migraines- New Data

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A new study on stroke risk with migraines has led researchers to believe that older migraine sufferers are more likely to experience “silent brain injury” than non-migraineurs of the same age, according to the American Heart Association.

Stroke Risk with Migraines- New Data

Stroke risk with migraines: study details

A new article published by Stroke claims that people who suffer from frequent migraine attacks- throbbing head pain, nausea, stomach cramps, hypersensitivity to light- are twice as likely to suffer a stroke than their peers who don’t experience migraine headaches.

Here are the details of the migraine aura and stroke study:

  • Researchers examined 546 participants, average age 70 years.
  • Most (442) did not suffer from migraines, while 104 participants had a history of chronic migraine attacks.
  • About 40% of the participants were male.
  • Using MRI scans, scientists found a two-fold risk for silent brain infarctions in migraine patients, even after accounting for separate stroke risk factors.
  • The prevalence of aura with migraines (migraines with aura) didn’t seem to make a difference in relation to silent stroke risk.

More details on the migraine study can be found here:

Migraine, White Matter Hyperintensities, and Subclinical Brain Infarction in a Diverse Community

What’s a silent stroke?

A silent brain infarction (silent stroke) is minor brain damage usually caused by a blood clot in the veins which lead to the brain. While a silent stroke isn’t dangerous or likely to cause symptoms, it shouldn’t be ignored. For migraine sufferers, a silent stroke can be a precursor to a life-threatening stroke in the near future.

Preventive treatments

Will preventing migraines help to reduce your risk for stroke? That’s what researchers are still trying to prove.

What they can offer is this: if your migraine attacks are triggered by hypertension, then you should make a concerted effort to exercise, eat more vegetables, and follow an intensive vitamin regimen that maximizes on nutrients for healthy blood pressure, mitochondrial integrity, and good neurological functioning.

Still, as the study found that even migraineurs with normal blood pressure are at considerable risk for stroke, it’s important to discuss basic migraine and stroke prevention with your doctor, especially if you are nearing old age.

What’s your opinion on stroke risk with migraines?

After reading this, are you more likely to

  • change your diet
  • identify more migraine triggers in your daily life, or
  • start a new vitamin regimen containing nutrients that are proven to benefit migraine sufferers, such as riboflavin, butterbur, coenzyme Q10 or magnesium?

Also read:

Migraine Headache Visits that involve Brain Scans-This Number will Surprise you

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Migraine Headache Visits that involve Brain Scans-This Number will Surprise you

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A record number of visits to the emergency room are caused by migraine headaches, and an astonishing number lead to brain scans, according to a new report by the University of Michigan.

Migraine Headache Brain Scans

Migraine brain scans have tripled

In 1995, about 5% of visits to the doctor for migraine headaches resulted in a radiological imaging procedure testing for brain tumors.  In 2010, that number increased to 15%.

Though health professionals don’t normally advice getting a brain scan to investigate symptoms of chronic migraine headaches, a large percentage of hospital patients treated for migraine illness nevertheless agree to receive the costly- and risky radiological procedure.

Walk-In Clinics for Migraine Attacks, Pros and Cons

Using 4 years’ worth of information from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, scientists have found that one in eight visits to a doctor for migraines results in a CT or MRI brain scan, though tumors or aneurysms are rarely a factor behind migraines, which are classified as a neurological disorder.

Are brain scans safe?

Groups like the American College of Radiology warn that brain scans such as CT and MRI expose patients to unhealthy amounts of radiation, and should be avoided unless absolutely necessary in order to preserve life.  Additionally, MRI scans often lead to false positive results that may lead to more invasive tests that ultimately prove nothing in relation to incurable chronic migraines.

Migraines: What are they, and what can be done for them?

However, about one to three percent of brain scans for migraine headaches have conclusively led to a diagnosis of a brain tumor or impaired blood vessel- a percentage that seems insignificant to most physicians, but to the migraine patient is reason enough to go ahead with the testing, even considering the slim hope that the results will lead to an end to constant throbbing headaches, nausea, and allover fatigue.

The study, Headaches and Neuroimaging, published by the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), warns migraineurs to reconsider routine headache neuroimaging.  A link to the Choosing Wisely campaign is also provided.

What’s your opinion?

Would you consider getting a brain scan to find the cause of chronic migraine headaches?

If you have gone through a CT scan or MRI for migraines, did you find the procedure helpful or conclusive?

Do you think medical insurance providers should cover radiological imaging for migraines, or limit brain scans to patients who show signs of stroke or brain tumors?

Symptoms Migraines or Meningitis- Know the Difference

The Earliest Symptoms of Migraine are not Headaches

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Migraines, Teens and Opioid Consumption- New Health Report

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In a health report on migraine headaches in the teenaged population, researchers found that nearly fifty percent of the time, adolescents were prescribed potentially-harmful opioids for migraines ordinarily treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) such as Advil or Excedrin Migraine. Here are the details on that report on pediatric migraines.

Migraines, Teens and Opioid Consumption-New Health Report

In a report recently released by the Journal of Adolescent Health, researchers from WellPoint and HealthCore noted that close to half of all teens who receive treatment for migraine headaches are given opioids such as morphine, codeine, or oxycodone as the initial treatment.

Study on teen migraines

For the study on opioid use with pediatric headaches, scientists examined 8,373 chronic headache patients, all between 13 and 17 years of age.

  • Forty-six percent were given opioid painkillers on the first visit.
  • Of the 46% prescribed opioids, more than half received two or more prescriptions.
  • An overwhelming number of adolescents who visited the emergency rooms were prescribed opioids for migraine headaches.

These findings are contrary to the advice of migraine health experts, who recommend administering over-the-counter (OTC) headache medications first (ibuprofen, aspirin, or naproxen), and reserving opioid drugs as a secondary therapy.

Talking to Children about Migraines- Do You?

What’s wrong with opioids?

Opioid medications should be a last resort for migraine headaches, and only with your doctor’s permission. There are several reasons to be extremely cautious about opioid medications:

  • The risk for medication overdose and drug addiction is high with opioids- a fact that should not be overlooked with teens suffering from peer pressure.
  • Opioids may actually cause medication overuse headache (MOH), a vicious circle that increases your risk for chronic daily headache with migraine.
  • Opioids temporarily relieve pain, but have no therapeutic effect on the migraine condition, such as the underlying cause, triggers, or comorbid conditions (vomiting, vertigo, fatigue, and photophobia).
  • Narcotic pain relievers (Demerol, codeine, hydrocodone) and barbiturates (Fiorinal, Fioricet) can have dangerous side effects when taken long-term for migraine.

Testing Migraine Drugs for Pediatric Migraines- What’s the Holdup?

What do migraine experts say?

According to the American Academy of Neurology, opioids should only be used as an emergency treatment for very acute migraines, and only in selective circumstances to be judged by your physician.

For chronic migraine (more than 15 times per month), physicians recommend using a therapeutic approach that combines contemporary migraine treatments and natural alternative choices.

  • NSAID medications, used sparingly according to doctor’s instructions
  • Migraine trigger prevention
  • Migraine preventive medications
  • Relaxation techniques
  • Natural herbs, vitamins, and minerals that help with migraine illness

If your headaches are too frequent, you need less pain medication, good daily preventive medication, effective vitamins, minerals and herbs, behavioral medicine techniques like biofeedback, exercise, etc.

Does your teen suffer from chronic migraines?

What’s your opinion on opioid usage for migraine headaches?

Please feel free to comment below.

To Prevent Migraines, Stop Chewing Gum- True or False?

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With or Without Aura, It’s Still Migraine

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A question that many migraine patients have about chronic headaches is whether or not experiencing an aura (flashing lights) is important for diagnosing migraine disorder. There are many different types of migraines, and they can vary for each individual…and for each migraine headache episode.

With or Without Aura, It’s Still Migraine

Migraine types

According to the International Headache Society (HIS) Classification System, migraines are primary headaches. Other primary headaches include tension-type headaches and cluster headaches.

Classifications for migraine headaches include migraines with aura, migraines without aura, migraines without headaches, childhood migraines, and so forth.

To define which type of migraine you have, it’s important to take into account all the various symptoms you experience, such as nausea, headaches, neck soreness, eye sensitivity, stomachaches, vomiting, diarrhea, mood swings, visual disturbances, speech slurring, vertigo, and extreme crushing fatigue.

Anatomy of a migraine attack

There are four main phases that occur when you have a migraine attack. They include:

  • Prodrome- unusual cravings, loss of appetite, excitability, fatigue, thirst; these happen about one day earlier.
  • Aura- migraine aura phase (see below)
  • Migraine headache
  • Postdrome- migraine hangover, recuperation following migraine attack

Migraine with aura

Approximately one-third of all migraine patients experience the aura phase of a migraine attack. This is a set of symptoms that develops gradually minutes before a migraine strikes and can last as long as one hour. Sometimes, migraine aura occurs without headache, and ends with a feeling of hangover.

To diagnose migraine with aura, you would have to have experienced at least one of the following symptoms minutes before a migraine attack, at least twice that you can remember. Symptoms are temporary, and cannot be attributed to any other underlying health problems.

Visual disturbances:

  • Flashing bright lights
  • Oscillating arc image
  • Zig-zagging line
  • Light specks that flicker
  • Temporary loss of peripheral vision
  • Dark void in vision
  • Double or blurred vision

Sensory disturbances:

  • Hallucinatory scents
  • Vertigo
  • Distorted spatial awareness
  • Faces appear grossly large or small
  • Loss of sense of time passing
  • Loss of consciousness
  • Numbness
  • Partial paralysis

Speech disturbances

  • Dysarthria speech distortion
  • Apraxia- paralyzed speech
  • Slurring
  • Numbness in tongue

Migraines with aura

Migraines without aura follow the prodrome phase, as opposed to an aura phase.  A migraine without aura can be just as debilitating as a migraine with aura, and can last for hours or days.

If you experience migraines without the aura, don’t hesitate to ask your physician to refer you to a migraine headache specialist.


Migraine abortive medications, preventatives, and pain treatments are often prescribed, in addition to migraine trigger avoidance.

Some helpful natural supplements for migraines are butterbur, magnesium, riboflavin, and coenzyme Q10.

Questions? Please feel free to comment below!

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Just How Many Types of Migraine Are There?

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Which type of migraines do you experience? Understanding the difference between the many classifications of migraine attacks can help you determine which migraine triggers to avoid and how to describe your symptoms to your migraine doctor.

Just How Many Types of Migraine Are There?

What defines a migraine?

Doctors may not agree about whether migraine is an illness or a health condition, but we do know that migraine attacks stem from a neurological disorder. While excruciating headaches are the most common symptom of migraine, not all migraineurs experience head pain with each migraine attack, and some of the other symptoms can be equally crippling.

Also, not all chronic headaches are migraines; cluster headaches and tension headaches are classified in a separate category from migraine headaches.

Is it Migraine or Tension Headache? Comparison Chart

Migraine Types

Migraines are generally defined by the specific symptoms, plus the assumed migraine triggers or cause. Migraine attack symptoms vary for each individual, and can be inconsistent.

Migraines with Aura

Basically, migraines are divided into two groups: those that follow a “migraine aura” and those that don’t.

The migraine aura is a warning signal that happens mere seconds before a migraine strikes.  Symptoms can be frightening and debilitating: sudden vertigo, partial paralysis, distorted sense of spatial awareness, speech slurring, strange flashes of lights or colors, and sometimes brief loss of consciousness.

Sometimes a migraine aura gives you time to prepare and quickly take an abortive medication, but not always.

Ocular Migraine

An ocular migraine refers to a migraine with aura, and defines the specific phenomenon that occurs during this migraine phase. Other names include ophthalmic migraine or retinal migraine.

There are different types of ocular migraine, depending on which type of visual distortion you experience before a migraine attack occurs.

Symptoms of ocular migraine include blurred vision, bright specks of light, zigzagging lines, oscillating arcs, temporary partial blindness in one eye, floating lines, and dark void that increases.

Acephalgic Migraine

Also called “silent migraines,” an acephalgic migraine includes all the symptoms of a migraine attack, minus the headache.  Somebody suffering from acephalgic migraines may experience frequent dizziness, nausea, stomach cramps, visual distortions, vertigo, and extreme fatigue- all symptoms that occur often with migraines with aura.

Migraine Auras without Headache: Silent Migraines

Seasonal Migraines

Sometimes, your migraine headaches occur only with changes in climate. Migraines are characteristically hypersensitive to changes of any kind (e.g. hormones, blood sugar, and sleep schedules), so fluctuations in the weather that occur with the change of seasons can trigger strong headaches for many people who are predisposed to migraines.

Other reasons for season migraines can include allergens in the air, arid weather, or even seasonal affective disorder (SAD), a type of depression that afflicts some people in the winter.

Cyclic Migraine Syndrome

Also called unspecified migraine, cyclic migraines don’t follow any pattern that can be traced easily. You may go through a phase of chronic migraine headaches- more than 15 per month- and then experience a weeks-long respite, only to have the vicious cycle repeat all over again.

Abdominal Migraine

Abdominal migraines are usually the earliest sign of pediatric migraine, as they’re mostly common in children who have inherited migraines from their family. Still, abdominal migraines can occur with adults. Symptoms of abdominal migraine include intense stomach cramps, nausea, vomiting, and loss of appetite.

Abdominal Migraines- Because Migraines Are Not Always In Your Head!

Also read:

Pediatric Migraine Tips for Parents

Dealing with Nausea and Vomiting with Migraines

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The 5 Most Surprising Foods that Trigger Migraines

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If you’re following a migraine-friendly diet, then you already know to tread carefully around certain foods. Chocolate, coffee, aged cheeses and red wine are all red-light items that are most likely to result in a raging migraine headache. Here are some lesser-known migraine triggers that you may not have been warned about.

The 5 Most Surprising Foods that Trigger Migraines

What are migraine triggers?

Migraine triggers don’t actually cause migraines; rather they increase your odds of getting a migraine attack. The more migraine triggers you’re exposed to, the likelier you are to spend more days suffering from headaches and nausea; it’s a snowball effect that can only be avoided by eliminating certain triggers from your life.

Easier said than done- there are hundreds of migraine triggers, including food ingredients, hormonal changes, stress, bright lights, noise, scents, and even the weather.

Not all Migraine Triggers Cause Headaches- New Research

Some migraine triggers just can’t be avoided, so to improve your health with migraine it’s important to focus on the ones that you can change, such as diet.


If you like taking home a doggie bag, then make sure to use it quickly. Leftover foods are likely to contain tyramine, a headache trigger that occurs with foods containing the amino acid tyrosine. With time, as your food sits, tyrosine is converted to tyramine. The highest amounts are found in foods that aren’t refrigerated properly. To save money and prevent migraines, store leftover restaurant foods in airtight containers in the refrigerator.


As with leftover foods, fruits that sit on the counter and get very ripe, such as bananas and avocadoes, have very high amounts of headache-inducing tyramine.


Citrus fruits- oranges, lemons, kiwi- are excellent sources of vitamin C, but they can also lead to migraines. Sour fruits that contain a lot of acid can wreak havoc on your pH blood level, increasing your chances for migraine headaches. Additionally, citrus fruits contain tyramine and histamine- together with citric acid, a triple-whammy of a migraine trigger.

Diet soda

Artificial sweeteners, food colorings, and preservatives are all chemicals that contribute to migraine frequency, in addition to many other health issues.  For great health and fewer migraines, try to reduce the number of processed foods you eat, and up your whole foods intake.  Choose plain seltzer over diet or original Coke, make the change to whole wheat bread, and cook with fresh meats instead of buying frozen prepackaged dinners.


One of the most notorious migraine triggers- monosodium glutamate (MSG)– lurks in some of the least-suspected food items; roasted nuts, mayonnaise, noodle soup mix- these yummy treats are all seasoned with MSG, the manufacturer’s number one choice in food flavorings, valued for its delicious taste and low cost. When you have the urge to nosh, look out for MSG-free  snacks in the health food aisle; they’re slightly more expensive, but worth the price of a migraine-free day.

Please tell us..

What foods have you learned to avoid in order to prevent migraines?

Can you add some migraine food triggers that aren’t mentioned here?

Questions? Please feel free to comment below!

Also read:

5 Foods that Help with Migraines

Does Alcohol Always Trigger Migraines?

10 Ridiculously Healthy Vitamins for Women Migraine Patients

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Which Natural Supplements are best for Migraine?

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Yesterday we discussed the safety of natural supplements for helping with migraines. Always make an informed choice before you start supplementing with herbs or extra vitamin supplementation. Here are some of the most helpful nutrients for migraine patients, as advised by leading health experts in migraine research.

Which Natural Supplements are best for Migraine?

According to the most updated scientific data, certain complementary supplements have extraordinary health benefits that impact migraine behavior, even in evidence-based placebo trials.

The most popular are butterbur, coenzyme Q10, magnesium, and riboflavin.


Butterbur is an ancient shrubbery that has many medicinal properties that benefit migraineurs. Scientists have found surprising results when butterbur was matched with common migraine prescription drugs and a placebo. For best results, take 75 milligrams twice daily.

Look for butterbur extracts that are PA-free, devoid of the toxin pyrrolizidine alkaloids

Coenzyme Q10

Your body produces CoQ10 naturally, but scientists have found that increasing your levels of coenzyme Q10 by 100-150 mg one to three times per day can make a huge difference with migraines.

Coenzyme Q10 Benefits and Dosage Information


There is much research demonstrating that magnesium deficiency is a rampant cause of chronic headaches, including migraine. Scientists have found that are large percentage of migraine sufferers have severely low levels of this essential mineral, and that correcting the deficiency usually brings positive results.

Magnesium for Migraines- Dr. Hyman Agrees!


Migraines are a neurological disorder, so it makes sense that taking B vitamins such as riboflavin would help greatly. Vitamin B2 and Vitamin B12 are some of the most beneficial nutrients for supporting the nervous system, as they help to control homocysteine, protect the nerve cells, and enhance red blood cell production.

Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) in Natural Migraine Ingredients

For best results, experiment with 400 mg of riboflavin each day.

Questions? Just ask! Please post your comments below.

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Safe Supplements for Migraine Headaches

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People who suffer from chronic migraines may consider the use of safe natural supplements to help with debilitating headaches, nausea, and fatigue that occur with a migraine attack. Some of the most popular include butterbur, magnesium, riboflavin (vitamin B2) and coenzyme Q10. Though vitamins, minerals and herb extracts are considered safe for all ages, it’s important to be informed and discuss any new medication, even natural supplements, with your doctor.

Safe Supplements for Migraine Headaches

Here are a few questions that migraine patients frequently have about the safety of natural supplements for migraine:

Do herbal remedies cure migraines?

In a nutshell, natural supplements won’t cure migraine headaches, but they can provide health benefits needed most when migraines strike often.

Let’s get one thing straight- there is no cure for migraines, so don’t believe any claims you may hear to the contrary, even from natural supplement manufacturers.

By supporting many vital biochemical functions that occur in your nerve cells, vascular network and immune system, many natural supplements that are endorsed by today’s top migraine specialists can significantly aid with the day-to-day challenges of chronic headache.

For example, then your migraines are triggered by vascular constriction, then using a natural supplement that supports good circulation can only benefit.

Likewise, if magnesium deficiency is a cause of chronic migraines, as it is with many migraineurs, then upping your magnesium intake is a smart choice to make- one that you may need to continue for life for optimal benefits.

The 4 Best Vitamins to Help Headaches

What do doctors have to say?

Natural supplements are becoming mainstream as part of a functional medicine approach to migraines.

Increasingly, more doctors today are open to complimentary medical approaches such as the use of herbs, vitamins, and minerals to aid with migraine headaches. Unfortunately, many migraine patients who choose to go the natural route are too embarrassed to confide in their doctors about natural supplements, either because they think they’ll be ridiculed or they’re worried that their doctor will take offense.

This is a serious problem- you should always tell your doctor about anything new you are using to treat migraine disorder, as even safe natural supplements for migraine headaches can sometimes interact with other medications you are taking or other underlying health conditions.

Butterbur Supplements for Migraines- Are they Safe?

Tell us…

What natural herbs, minerals, or vitamins do you use to help with migraines?

Have you noticed a difference in the amount of pain medications you use since you started supplementing with vitamins?

After reading this, are you more or less likely to consider adding a vitamin regimen to your migraine plan?

Also read: Top 25 Natural Migraine Treatments: Vitamins, Minerals, and Herb

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Excedrin Migraine and Extra Strength- Is there a Difference? Nope.

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A new class-action lawsuit was brought against the makers of Excedrin Migraine when a migraine sufferer from Cherry Hill claimed that Novartis intentionally inflates the price of their popular pain medication, cashing in on migraine stigma.

Excedrin Migraine and Extra Strength- Is there a Difference? Nope.

For years, Kerri Yingst would take Excedrin Migraine to relieve constant headaches, opting for the red-labeled package designated for migraine sufferers over the standard green box carrying their extra-strength formula.

It caught her attention that the migraine treatment from Novartis is substantially more expensive than their green label painkillers- about 12-15% more in cost.

The natural assumption was that the higher price accounts for the product’s increased efficiency in dealing specifically with headaches caused by migraine disorder. That would explain for the price difference, right?

Actually, on closer inspection, she noted that the two products have exactly the same active ingredients.

Migraine Excedrin has 250 mg of aspirin, 250 mg of acetaminophen, and 65 mg of caffeine.

Excedrin Extra Strength also has 250 mg of aspirin, 250 mg of acetaminophen, and 65 mg of caffeine.

This discovery prompted her to file a class action lawsuit against Novartis for consumer fraud, on the grounds that they are decisively misleading migraine patients by selling them ordinary painkillers at a jacked-up price.

It’s not just about the labeling, says Kerri’s lawyer Todd Muhlstock; it’s about the fact that Novartis misrepresents their product, charging more for the promise of advanced migraine relief.

It’s not fair, when “someone is at the mercy of a migraine and you can’t balance, you can’t have any light, and you’ll do anything to get relief.”

Details of the lawsuit:

The Excedrin Migraine Class Action Lawsuit, Kerri Yingst v. Novartis AG, et al., Case No. 2:13-cv-07919, in the U.S. District Court for the District of New Jersey.


Which painkillers do you prefer for relieving migraines: Excedrin or Advil?

Have you experienced any of the side effects linked with pain medication, such as tinnitus, hypertension, or rebound headaches?

Would you consider supplementing with natural minerals, herbs, and vitamins, if it meant that you could lower your dependency on pain pills?

Also read:

10 Topamax Side Effects that are worse than Migraines

OTC Painkillers- How do they Work, What are the Risks?

Top 25 Natural Migraine Treatments: Vitamins, Minerals, and Herbs

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Talking to Children about Migraines- Do You?

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About 10-12% of children experience persistent headaches, and from that number, about 10% suffer from chronic migraines. Knowing how to discuss migraine attacks with your child is an important step towards helping her learn how to cope in her adult years.  Here are some tips to consider when talking about pediatric migraines with your child.

Talking to Children about Migraines- Do You?

Don’t assign blame

It’s important that you child understands that his headaches aren’t because of anything he or she did wrong.

While it’s true that there are certain “migraine triggers” in food and drinks that she should learn to avoid because they make a migraine headache more likely to occur, that’s not the same thing as saying that eating a slice of pizza “caused” her to have a migraine episode, or that she is to blame for her headaches.

Does your child chew gum? Stopping may help prevent migraines.

Migraines are real

Chances are good that if your son or daughter has recurrent migraines, then so do other people in your family.

Migraine disorder is a neurological condition that is most often inherited in the genes. It may help for your child to realize that he’s not alone in this, and that migraines are not a mental illness, but rather a chemical response to pain that goes “berserk” every now and then.

Migraines are treatable

There may not be a “cure” for migraines, but that doesn’t mean that your child is without options.

Natural prevention

First and foremost, find out about natural preventive treatments that you can use to avoid the need for painkillers should a migraine headache strike. It may help to record what your child eats each day for several months, and use that information to find out if any certain foods trigger migraines. Pay attention to cured meats, hard cheeses, processed snacks, gluten, or overripe fruits.

Take the right vitamins

Oftentimes, childhood migraines can result from a deficiency in vitamin B or magnesium. Ask your doctor to recommend safe vitamins, minerals, and herbs that support neurological health for people suffering from migraines. Good ones to try are riboflavin, magnesium, coenzyme Q10, and PA-free butterbur extracts.

Providing relief

During a migraine attack, turn out the lights and help her relax in bed or on the couch. Keep noise down to a minimum, as bright lights and loud noises may make her headache worse.

Your child may suffer extreme nausea, head pain, stomachache and dizziness, so be prepared with a fresh towel and bucket in case she needs to vomit. Afterwards, your child may be completely wiped out and need to sleep for a long time. These are all normal symptoms of pediatric migraine.

For more information on childhood migraine headaches, see

Also read:

Testing Migraine Drugs for Pediatric Migraines- What’s the Holdup?

Pediatric Migraine Tips for Parents

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